Acid attacks have a catastrophic effect on human flesh and vital organs. In most of these attacks, hydrochloric and sulphuric acid are used. These corrosive substances cause the skin tissue to melt. The bones of the victims become exposed and, sometimes, the acid dissolves the bones too. Furthermore, if acid enters the eyes of the victim during an attack, as is common in acid attack cases, it damages these vital organs permanently. Many acid attack survivors have lost one or both eyes. As a result of disfigurement and disability, the victims are permanently debilitated and are forced to give up their public lives, work and education. In this regard, compensation to cover vital surgeries for victims who can no longer support themselves becomes imperative.
Acid eats through two layers of the skin—the fat and muscle underneath - and sometimes not only eats through to the bone but may even dissolve the bone. The deepness of injury depends on the strength of the acid and the duration of contact with the skin. Burning continues until the acid is thoroughly washed off with water. Thrown on a person’s face, acid rapidly eats into the eyes, ears, nose and mouth. The eyelids and lips may burn off completely.
The nose may melt, closing the nostrils, and the ears shrivel up.
Acid attacks, like other forms of violence against women, are not random or natural phenomena. Rather, they are social phenomena deeply embedded in a gender order that has historically privileged patriarchal control over women and justified the use of violence to "keep women in their places."